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Minna No Nihongo Lesson 7 Grammar

Minna No Nihongo Lesson 7 Grammar

 1. N (tool/means) で V

The particle で indicates a method or a mean used for an action.

はしで 食べます。                        I eat with chopsticks.

日本語でレポートを書きます。 I write a report in Japanese.

  2. “Word/Sentence” は … 語で何ですか

This question is used to ask how to say a word or a sentence in other languages.


… 「Thank you」です。

What’s “ありがとう” in English?

… It’s “Thank you”.

  3. N (person) に あげます, etc.

Verbs like あげます, かします, おしえます, etc., need persons to whom you give, lend, teach, etc. The persons are marked with に.


Mr.Yamada gave flowers to Ms.Kimura.

イーさんに 本を貸しました。

I lent my book to Ms.Lee.


I teach Taro English.

[Note] With verbs like おくります, でんわをかけます, etc., place nouns can be used instead of N (person). In this case, the particle へ is sometimes used instead of に.


I’ll call my office.

  4. N (person) に,もらいます, etc.

Verbs like もらいます, かります and ならいますexpress actions from the receiving side. The persons from whom you receive those actions are marked with に.


Ms.Kimura received flowers from Mr.Yamada.


I borrowed a CD from Ms.Karina.


I learn Chinese from Mr.Wang.

から is sometimes used instead of に in this sentence pattern. When you receive something from an organization like a school or a company, only からis used.


Ms.Kimura received flowers from Mr.Yamada.


I borrowed some money from the bank.

  5. もう Vました。

もう means “ already” and is used with Vました. In this case, Vました means that the action has been finished.

The answer to the question もう  Vましたか is はい、もうVました or いいえ、まだです.

もう荷物を送りましたか。               Have you sent the parcel yet?

… はい、[もう] 送りました。         … Yes, I have [already sent it].

… いいえ、まだです。                     … No, not yet.

In giving a negative answer to this type of question, you should not use Vませんでした, as this simply means you did not do the specified task rather than you have not done it yet.