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Minna No Nihongo Lesson 6 Grammar

Minna No Nihongo Lesson 6 Grammar

1. N を V (transitive)

を is used to indicate the direct object of a transitive verb.

ジュースを 飲みます。 I drink juice.

[Note] を and お are pronounced the same. The former is used only in writing the particle.

 2.N を します

The words used as the objects of the verb します cover a fairly wide range. します means that the action denoted by the noun is performed. Some examples are shown below.

  • To “play” sports or games

サッカーを します。 Play football

  • To “hold” gatherings

会議を します。    Hold a meeting

  • To “do” something

宿題を します。   Do homework

 3. 何を しますか

This is a question to ask what someone does.

月曜日 何を しますか。        What will you do on Monday?

… 東京へ いきます。            … I’ll go to Tokyo.

きのう 何を しましたか。    What did you do yesterday?

… サッカーを しました。     … I played football.

[Note] You can make a word expressing time the topic by adding は.

月曜日は 何を しますか。    On Monday what will you do?

… 京都へ 行きます。            … I’ll go to Kyoto.

 4. なん and なに

Both なん and なに mean “what”.

a) なん is used in the following cases.

* When it precedes a word whose first mora is either in the た, だ, な

それは何すか。 What is that?

本ですか。 What is the book about?


What do you say before going to bed? (L.21)

* When it is followed by a counter suffix or the like.

テレサちゃんは 何歳 (なんさい)ですか。

How old is Teresa?

b) なに is used in all other cases.

何を買いますか。 What will you buy?

 5. N (place) で V

When added after a noun denoting a place, で indicates the place where an action occurs.

駅で 新聞を買います。    I buy the newspaper at the station.

  6. V ません

When you want to invite someone to do something, this expression is used.

いっしょに 京都へ 行きませんか。

… ええ、いいですね。

Won’t you come to Kyoto with us?

… That’s a nice ideal.

  7. V ましょう

This expression is used when a speaker is positively inviting the listener to do something with the speaker. It is also used when responding positively to an invitation.

ちょっと休みましょう。                                       Let’s have a break.

いっしょに ひるごはんを たべませんか。        Won’t you have lunch with me?

… ええ、食べましょう。                                      … Yes, let’s go and eat.

[Note] An invitation using V ません shows more consideration to the listener’s will than that using V ましょう.

  8. お…

You learned in Lesson 3 that the prefix お is attached to words regarding the listener or the person being referred to show respect (e.g., [お] くに country).

お is also attached to various other words when the speaker is speaking politely (eg., [お] さけ alcohol, [お] はなみ cherry-blossom viewing).

There are some words that are usually used with お without meaning respect or politeness (おちゃ tea, おかね money).