Minna No Nihongo Lesson 28 Grammar
V1 ます-form ながら V2
This sentence pattern means that one person does two different actions (V1 and V2) at the same time. The action denoted by V2 is the more emphasized of the two actions.
I listen to music while eating.
This sentence pattern is also used when the two actions take place over a period of time.
I’m working and studying Japanese.
An individual’s customary action is expressed by this sentence pattern. A customary action in the past is expressed by using Vて-formいました.
I jog every morning.
I used to go to bed at eight every evening when I was a child.
Plain formし, ～
1) When sentences are stated from a certain viewpoint, they can be linked using this structure. For example, sentences describing the merits of a particular subject are joined into one sentence using this pattern.
Professor Watt is earnest and diligent and has experience.
2) This structure is also used to state causes or reasons when there is more than one cause or reason. Use of this structure implies the meaning of “furthermore” or “on top of that”.
This shop is very convenient. It’s near the station, and you can also come here by car.
When the speaker states reasons using this pattern, he/she sometimes does not say his/her conclusion when it’s understood from the context.
Could you teach English to my son?
Sorry. I often go on business trip, and I have to take a Japanese exam soon.
There are cases when only one ～し is used in a sentence. Though the reason explicitly stated is only one, the existence of other reasons is implied by the use of ～し. Note this is not true of ～から.
Because the color is beautiful (and for some other reasons), I’ll buy this pair of shoes.
As you seen above, the particleも is often used in this sentence pattern. By the use ofも , the speaker implies the existence of other reasons to emphasize his/her viewpoint.
それにis used when you add another similar fact or situation.
Why did you choose Sakura University?
Because it’s my father’s alma mater, there are many good teachers, and besides, it’s near my house.
それでis a conjunction used to show that what was said before it is the reason or cause for the sentence following it.
The food is inexpensive and tasty in this restaurant.
And that’s why it’s crowded.
Do you often go to this coffee shop?
In this sentence, the particle に, which indicates one’s destination, is used instead of the particle へ, which shows direction. Verbs like いきます、きます、かえりますandしゅっちょうします are used with either “placeへ” or “placeに”.