Minna No Nihongo Lesson 25 Grammar
Plain past form ら、～
When らis attached to the past tense plain form of verbs, adjectives, etc., it changes the preceding clause into a conditional expression. When a speaker wants to state his opinion, situation, request, etc., in the conditional, this pattern is used.
If I had money, I would travel.
If I don’t have time, I will not watch TV.
If it’s inexpensive, I want to buy a personal computer.
If you are free, please give me a hand.
If it’s fine, won’t you take a walk with me?
When …/After …
This pattern is used to express that a certain action will be done or a certain situation will appear when a matter, action or state which is sure to happen in the future has been completed or achieved. The main sentence is always in the present tense.
Let’s go out when it gets to ten.
I take a shower soon after I return home.
い-adj (～い ) → ～くて
な-adj [な] → で
Even if …
This expression is used to present a reverse condition. Contrary to plain past form ら、～, this expression is used when an action which is expected to be taken or an event which is expected to happen naturally under the given circumstances does not materialize or a thing turns out in a way opposite to a socially accepted idea.
Even if it rains, I’ll do the laundry.
Even if group tours are expensive, I don’t like them.
Even if a personal computer is useful, I won’t use it.
Even if it is Sunday, I will work.
もしis used in a sentence in the plain past form to indicate beforehand that the sentence is going to present a condition, while いくらis used with ～ても（～でも）to do the same. もしimplies that an emphasis is on the speaker’s supposition while いくらis meant to stress the degree of conditionality.
If I had 100 million yen, I would want to travel to various countries.
No matter how much I think, I can’t understand this.
No matter how expensive it is, I will buy it.
As mentioned in Lesson 16, 4. [Note], the subject of a subordinate clause is indicated by が. In subordinate clause using たら, ても, とき, と, まえに, etc., in addition to から, the subject is indicated by が, as shown below.
I will clean my room before my friends come.
When my wife is sick, I take a day off work.
If your friend doesn’t come on time, what will you do?