Minna No Nihongo Lesson 24 Grammar
You learned that あげますmeans “give” in Lesson 7. This verb cannot be used when somebody else gives something to the speaker or the speaker’s family, etc. (x さとうさんはわたしにクリスマスカードをあげました). In this caseくれます is used.
I gave flowers to Ms. Sato.
Ms. Sato gave me a Christmas card.
Ms. Sato gave candies to my younger sister.
あげます, もらいますand くれますare also used to refer to the giving and receiving of actions as well as those of things. They indicate who is doing that act for whom, while also expressing a sense of goodwill or gratitude. In this case, the act is expressed by the て-form.
Vて-formあげます indicates that one does something for somebody with a sense of goodwill.
I lent Ms. Kimura a book.
When the speaker is the actor and the listener is the receiver of the act, this expression could give the impression that the speaker is being patronizing. You are, therefore, advised to avoid using this expression directly to someone whom you do not know very well or who is senior or superior to you. You may use it to someone with whom you have a very close, friendly relationship. So, when you offer assistance to someone who is not very close, Vます-form ましょうか (see Lesson 14,6) is used.
Shall I call a taxi for you?
May I help you?
Mr. Yamada told me the telephone number of the library.
This expression conveys a sense of gratitude on the part of those who receive a favor.
My mother sent me a sweater.
Like Vて-formもらいます, this expression also conveys a sense of gratitude on the part of those who receive a favor. The difference is that Vて-formもらいます has the receiver of the act as the subject of the sentence, while Vて-formくれます has the actor as the subject of the sentence, implying the actor (the subject) voluntarily takes the action. The receiver of the act in the latter case is often the speaker and わたし(the receiver) に is often omitted.
N (person) がV
That’s a nice tie, isn’t it?
Yes. Ms. Sato gave it to me.
You present a topic, saying すてきなネクタイですね. Responding to it, your partner in conversation gives a piece of information on the topic which is unknown to you, [このネクタイは]さとうさんがくれました. The subject of the sentence giving new information is indicated by が.
You learned that when the subject is questioned, it is indicated byが in あります／いますsentences (Lesson 10) and adjective sentences (Lesson 12). This is also the case for verb sentences.
Who will go to give him a hand?
Ms. Karina will.