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Minna No Nihongo Lesson 21 Grammar

Minna No Nihongo Lesson 21 Grammar

  1. Plain form と思います

I think that …

The ideas or information expressed with おもいますare indicated by the particle と.

1) When expressing conjecture


I think it will rain tomorrow.


I think Teresa has already gone to bed.

When the content of conjecture is negative in nature, make the sentence before とnegative.



Does Mr. Miller know this news?

No, I don’t think he does.

2) When expressing one’s opinion


I think that prices are high in Japan.

The expression ~についてどうおもいますかis used to ask someone’s opinion on something by usingおもいます.と is not necessary afterどう.



What do you think of the new airport?

I think that it is clean but the access to it is not easy.

Agreement or disagreement with other people’s opinions can be expressed as follows.




A: Fax machines are convenient, aren’t they?

B: I think so, too.
C: I don’t think so.

  1. “S” / Plain formと言います

say …

The content expressed withいいます is indicated by the particle と.

1) When quoting directly what someone says or said, repeat exactly what they say as in the following structure.


We say “Good night” before going to bed.


Mr. Miller said “I will go to Tokyo on a business trip next week”.

2) When quoting indirectly what someone says or said, the plain form is used before と. The tense of the quoted sentence is not affected by the tense of the main sentence.


Mr. Miller said that he would go to Tokyo on a business trip next week.

  1. Plain form でしょう

な-adj / N:~だ

When the speaker expects that the listener has some knowledge on the topic being discussed and that the listener will agree with the speaker’s view,でしょう is said with a rising intonation to confirm the listener’s agreement.



You are going to the party tomorrow, aren’t you?

Yes, I am.



It was cold in Hokkaido, wasn’t it?

No, it wasn’t that cold.

  1. N1 (place) N2があります

When N2 expresses such events as a party, concert, festival, incident, disaster and so on, ありますmeans “to take place” or “to be held”.


A football game between Japan and Brazil will be held in Tokyo.

  1. N (occasion) 

When some action takes place on a certain occasion, that occasion is followed by で.


Did you give your opinion at the meeting?

  1. でもV

でもis used to give an example out of things of the same kind when one encourages or advises someone to do something or when one makes a suggestion.


Shall we drink beer or something?

  1. Vない-formないと ….

This expression is made by omitting いけませんfrom Vない-formないといけません. V-ないformないといけません is similar to Vない-formなければなりませんwhich you learned in Lesson 17.


I have to go home now.