Minna No Nihongo Lesson 19 Grammar
In this lesson you learn the た-form. How to make the た-form is shown below.
The た-form is made by changing てand でof the て-form into たand だrespectively.
have the experience of V-ing
This sentence pattern is used to describe what one has experienced in the past. This is basically the same sentence as わたしはNがあります which you learned in Lesson 9. The content of one’s experience is expressed by the nominalized phrase Vた-form こと.
I have ridden a horse.
Note that it is, therefore, different from a sentence which merely states the fact that one did something at a certain time in the past.
I rode a horse in Hokkaido last year.
Vた-formり, Vた-form りします
V … and V …, and so on
You learned an expression for referring to a few things and persons among many (～や～ [ など ] ) in Lesson 10. The sentences learned here are used in referring to some actions among many other actions. The tense of this sentence pattern is shown at the end of the sentence.
On Sundays, I play tennis, see a movie and so on.
Last Sunday, I played tennis, saw a movie and so on.[Note] Make sure that you don’t confuse the meaning of this sentence pattern with that of the て-form sentence below which you learned in Lesson 16.
Last Sunday I played tennis and then saw a movie.
In (**) it is clear that seeing a movie took place after playing tennis. In (*) there is no time relation between the two activities. These activities are mentioned as example activities among the activities done on Sunday to imply that one did other activities besides them. And it is not natural that actions usually done by everybody every day such as getting up in the morning, taking meals, going to bed at night, etc., are mentioned.
い-adj (～い) → ～く
な-adj [な] → に
なりますmeans “become” and indicates changes in a state or condition.
寒い → 寒くなります get cold
元気[な] → 元気になります get well
25歳 → 25歳になります become 25 years old
そうですねis used when you agree or sympathize with what your partner in conversation said. そうですかwith a falling intonation is a similar expression to this (see Lesson 2, 6). そうですかis, however, an expression of your conviction or exclamation after getting information which was unknown to you, whileそうですね is used to express your agreement or sympathy with your partner in conversation when he/she refers to something you agree with or already know.
It’s got cold, hasn’t it?
Yet, it has.