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Minna No Nihongo Lesson 17 Grammar

Minna No Nihongo Lesson 17 Grammar

  1. Vない-form

The verb form used withない is called the ない-form; that is to say, かかof かかないis the ない-form of かきます(write). How to make the ない-form is given below.

1) Group I

In the verbs of this group the last sound of the ます-form is always the sound in the い-line. So, replace it with the sound of the あ-line to make a ない-form. The exceptions to this rule are such verbs as かいます, あいます, etc. (わis the last sound of the ない-form in the verbs instead of あ).

かき – ます → かか – ない                   いそぎ – ます → いそが – ない

よみ – ます → よま – ない                   あそび – ます → あそば – ない

とり – ます → とら – ない                   まち – ます  → また – ない

すい – ます → すわ – ない                   はなし – ます → はなさ – ない

2) Group II

The ない-form of verbs of this group is just the same as the ます-form.

たべ – ます  →  たべ – ない

み – ます   →   み – ない

3) Group III

The ない-form ofします is the same as the ます-form. きます becomes こ(ない).

べんきょうし – ます   →       べんきょうし – ない

し – ます    →                           し – ない

き – ます    →                           こ – ない

  1. Vない-form ないでください

Please don’t …

This expression is used to ask or instruct someone not to do something.


I am fine, so please don’t worry about me.


Please don’t take pictures here.

  1. Vない-formなければなりません

must …

This expression means something has to be done regardless of the will of the actor. Note that this doesn’t have a negative meaning.


I must take medicine.

  1. Vない-form なくてもいいです

need not …

This sentence pattern indicates that the action described by the verb does not have to be done.


You don’t have to come tomorrow.

  1. N (object) 

You learned in Lesson 6 that the particleを is attached to the direct object of verbs. Here you learn that the object is made a topic by replacingを with は.


Please don’t put parcels here.


As for parcels, don’t put them here.


I have lunch in the company cafeteria.


As for lunch, I have it in the company cafeteria.

  1. N (time) までにV

The point in time indicated by までにis the time limit by which an action is to be done.


The meeting will be over by five.


I must return the book by Saturday.

[Note] Make sure you do not confuse までにwith the particle まで.


I work until five.