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Minna No Nihongo Lesson 12 Grammar

Minna No Nihongo Lesson 12 Grammar

1. Past tense of noun sentences and な- adjective sentences.

Affirmative: N/Na adj + です - N/Na adj + でした。Negative: N/Na adj + じゃ(では)ありません。 – N/Na adj + じゃ(では)ありませんでした.

きのうは雨でした。 It was rainy yesterday

きのうの試験は簡単じゃありませんでした。Yesterday’s exam was not easy.

2. Past tense of い adjective sentences
Affirmative: あついです。 - あつかったです
Negative: あつくないです - あつくなかったです

きのうは暑かったです。 It was hot yesterday
きのうのパーティーはあまり楽しくなかったです。 I didn’t enjoy yesterday’s party very much

3. N1 は N2 よりadjectiveです.

This sentence pattern describes the quality and/ or state of N1 in comparison with N2.


This car is bigger than that car.

4. N1 とN2とどちらがAdjectiveですか

…N1/N2 のほうがAdjectiveです.

The question asks the listener to choose between two items ( N1 and N2). The interrogative used is always どちらif the comparison is made between two items.



Which is more interesting, baseball or football?

Football is.


Who is a better tennis player, Mr. Miller or Mr. Santos?

5. N1の中で何・どこ・だれ・いつ・がいちばんadjectiveですか


This question pattern is used to ask the listener to choose something that is the most “adjective”. The choice is made form the group or category denoted by N1. The interrogative used is decided by the kind of category from which the choice is made.



Among Japanese dishes, what is the most delicious?

Tempura is



When is the coldest time of the year?

It’s coldest in February.

[Note] When the subject is an interrogative, the particle が is used.

When the subject of an adjective sentence is questioned, が is attached to the interrogative in the same way.